Sorry for the poor quality translation. source here

Rossi's power-cell. (RPC  ТГР)  

By early 2012, the structure of the RPC gradually took their full functional form, as a kind of unit, suitable for a wide application in many sectors of the economy. Rossi proved the reality of LENR energy on an industrial scale to produce, and now it is time for the intellectual, operational and financial resources of the Society for the widespread use of this opportunity to connect. Suddenly a broad front of the work appeared in four areas: academic science, experimental physics, engineering applications, speculative commercial direction. 

Device.

The picture shows a generalized diagram of the heat generator Rossi, a configuration with a series of necessary and sufficient components for the operation of the device.
In a robust housing of the reactor laid mixing a nano-nickel powder 2, optionally with the addition of a catalyst.
Electric heating element 3 is used for heating the powder at the first operation device. It is within or outside of the reactor is, if a good thermal contact is provided with the body. The heat after the reactor start will be perceived by a cooling means (5). As a filler is mineral oil for low temperature versions molten salt or metal alloy for apparatus used with high temperature. For the operation of the apparatus utilized is hydrogen, which is obtained in the hydrogen regenerator (6). Because the reactor is very small amounts of hydrogen consumed literally micrograms per hour, but the intensity of the heat of the reactor Depends on its pressure. Therefore, the most important requirement for the regenerator, the reversibility of the process of evolution of hydrogen gas and the dependence of hydrogen pressure in the system from the temperature of the own heating (7).

fig. 1.

Such conditions are hydrides of some metals just like Magnesium hydride. One cubic centimeter of this powder contains hydrogen by weight and a half times more than its contained the same amount of liquid hydrogen. However hydride of iron-titanium alloy such as dissociated at temperatures from 320 to 370 K with a low heat of formation. The tube (8) connects the regenerator of hydrogen with a closed reactor of thermal insulation (9). The selection of heat takes place through the heat exchanger (10) from where there is the coolant in the form of water or superheated steam. Device control and management receives information from the temperature and pressure sensors. It maintains the heat of the reactor at the desired level by controlling the temperature of the regenerator of hydrogen.

The principle of operation.

The scientists in the chemical catalysis, and employs a lot of detail with the nickel-hydrogen system. They are well known, with processes at the interface between solid and gaseous phases, such as:
     - Dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen molecules on metal surfaces,
     - Dissociation of the adsorbed hydrogen atoms into protons and electrons,
     - Proton dissolution of atomic hydrogen in the crystal lattice of nickel with the transition of an electron in the conduction band of hydrogen in the metal.
Written many articles on this topic, for example here or here.

The question is why the researchers did not notice the anomalous heat generation in their working patterns? Maybe because they deal with two-dimensional structures, more sophisticated, but the surfaces. And no one before and Rossi Piantelli not kalorimetriert the nickel nanopowders under considerable pressure at a high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. Here is just nanopowders, apparently, is the key. The large surface section between the two phases has led to a transition from quantity to quality - the start of the heat released commercially. It turned out that the hydrogen that diffuses through the nickel grid of dismissal of an electron, has a non-zero probability to penetrate the core of an atom of nickel. In implementing this probability is LENR - reaction, accompanied by a large release of energy. Modern science has to deny recently accompanied the possibility of LENR processes by transmutation of energy release, and not able to explain clearly the physical nature of the phenomenon. (Here), but this fact should not prevent the introduction a new efficient heat source, and the ambiguity of the combustion process does not interfere with people thousands of years, the use of pyres.

Thus, the more hydrogen atoms is in the lattice of nickel, realizes the more the probability of absorption of the proton nucleus of nickel. The concentration of hydrogen protons in the crystal lattice of the larger, the higher the temperature in the reactor, the higher the hydrogen pressure, and the more developed the interface between the gas and the metal crystals. The easiest way to manage the reactor change, the gas pressure. What has been implemented by introducing in the device node of the regenerator of hydrogen. It should be emphasized that the emergency situation that can not be to "accelerate" the process of heat in the reactor warden occur: during the heating of the specimen sintering or melting will occur the nanopowder, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of protons in the crystals .

Operational quality.


Rossi generator designed to generate heat energy, it runs on the controller and allows you to implement custom schedule of heat. The device is connected to the network, which in operation continuously uses a small amount of electricity to power the controller and the heating element (7) of the regenerator. Greater consumption of electricity is required for the initial start-up device. In this case additionally works fairly strong the heater (3) of the reactor. He predestined to heat the entire volume of the reactor to operating temperature and warming to hold until creates diffusing into the nickel crystals hydrogen, a proton concentration in order to initiate the exothermic reaction. It is noteworthy that shown for the two-circuit heat transfer, as in the figure, the power consumption of starting-up phase is substantially less than for single-circuit, since the heat is not flushing away through the coolant, while the reactor heated.

Thus, the specific nature of the heat source at the generator Rossi a slow start after the break, a relatively shallow level of power control and the slow change of the current value of the thermal power released. However, these drawbacks are insignificant in comparison with such dignity, such as an extremely low cost of energy produced.

Place of RPC on energy sources.

Generator Rossi, of course, can be used for space heating as a local heat source, but much better to treat it as a tool for collaborative production of electricity and heat (the principle of Cogeneration). In this respect interesting to compare it to other heat sources that are used to generate electricity. Currently, the most important technical tool for converting thermal energy into electricity by a turbine-generator efficiency and the turbine generator and other steam engine depends mainly on the parameters of the steam at the inlet of the turbine.

The following table can be compared, is the area in which these parameters with the use of thermal energy in the various technical systems. The same data are in the graph of the phase diagram of water shown. Some clarifications on the points table. A significant proportion of the electricity in the world produce thermal power plants. Despite the fact that the steam parameters have come far in the supercritical region of the phase diagram of water and the formula for the Carnot promises good efficiency (paragraph 3 - **), the average efficiency of the Russian power plant would be about 36%. This is due to the fact that all the heat of vaporization (2260 kJ / kg), which is released into the condenser, it is necessary, in cooling towers or cooling pools to be dissipated. In Russia, the practice of building district heating plant (** item 2) was developed. Due to some reduction in efficiency, it managed to increase the water temperature from the external circuit to a level (120 - 140 degrees). This made it possible to transfer the hot water over long distances for the heating of the surrounding residential areas.

fig. 2.

In the West, went the other direction. Steam-gas cycle process (Item 5 - **) separates thermal energy that is released when fuel utilization in two parts - a gas turbine and steam turbine. The result was a phenomenal increase in the efficiency of the unit, almost doubled (from 36 to 60%). This is explained by the fact that a wasteful process of heat transfer through a two-phase heat transfer medium (water) used only in the last stage of the process. In other words, the amount of evaporated water per kilogram of burned fuel in a steam-gas process is about three times smaller.

Against this background, looks extremely pale, the parameters of the coolant in nuclear power plants (Item 4 - **) - the most common reactor type RBMK-1000. Water - water two-circuit system, and the need for frequent replacement of the fuel rods in the work unit, which are connected to the technological penetration into the volume of the primary circuit, led (bar 65) to lower operating pressure and temperature (280 degrees.). Reproduced in the official 31.3% efficiency is not always fully taken into account energy expended on the station's own needs. The use of "junk" heat for the plant is not possible, because of its remote location. The heat generator Rossi (item 6 - **) allows the coolant to 650 degrees. C heat, while the pressure and only to the strength and heat resistance of the heat exchanger.

fig. 3.

Generally in the energy sector, despite the fact that cleaner burning fuel in a closed space in the position of the heating boiler design to very high temperatures, can not penetrate far into the supercritical range of the phase diagram of water. About Critical fluid acquires new properties, in particular, it is chemically aggressive. For example, in Iceland, to extract the geothermal energy in the volcanic area, drilled deep into more than two miles. The resulting fluid having a temperature of 1100 degrees C corroded pipes and heat exchanger made of stainless steel. In the column of Table 6.5 of the overall efficiency of RPC was set to 100%. This is due to the fact that the local device on the principle of combined heat and power (CHP - Cogeneration), that operates heat, which is not used to generate electricity, used for heating or air conditioning.

With all favorable settings of the thermal generator Rossi laurels of victory between the energy sources is still part of the solar and wind energy - it does not cause thermal pollution.

The type of heat-elimination device

Apart from the auxiliary details, you can look at the heat source Rossi as fuel element. It is characterized by a well-defined density of volumetric power output (W / cm ³), geometric shape, which determines the transport of heat from the working volume and surface area through which heat causes in the refrigerator. The closest analogue to the physical device is considered a fuel rod that works on all types of nuclear reactors. It is useful to compare these two devices.

The volumetric energy release. Fuel rod in the form of a long tube with a diameter 1.9 mm is -13.5 bar in the flow of the cooling water with the parameters of 65, disposed 280 degrees C (for RBMK-1000). Data for its energy performance are well known: volume up to 450 W / cm, linear 17 kW per meter of pipe and heat flux 0.6 MW per square meter of surface heat transfer. While no detailed data for RPC, from the statement that the internal medium of the unit (molten salt) can can exceed 650 degrees C (here), we conclude that the energy level of RPC same magnitude as the fuel rod has. "... Has successfully completed its PDGT scientific, technological and engineering Necessary steps to sustain such a reaction with results Exceeding a COP of 20 and with temperatures exceed 650 degrees Celsius capable to ..."

The energy source. The fuel element of the reactor, the forced splitting of uranium 235 takes place in the force field of thermal neutrons. The process has the statistical and cascade-condition, the average energy of 202.5 MeV for the decay of a nucleus. The RPC is the cold fusion reaction of hydrogen with one proton nucleus of an atom of nickel (LENR process) assume will be achieved by, releasing energy that accompanies the nuclear scale. One mole of nickel makes about 23 000 kWh of thermal energy.

The temperature distribution in the structure. Fuel element operates in a very tight operation. The tablets of uranium dioxide have low thermal conductivity, there is a significant temperature gradient in the radial direction: 1600 - 1900 °. C on the axis of the tube, on the surface of the tablet, respectively, 470 -900 degrees, further, difference between the pills and the cladding, the falling on the pan 20 degrees, and finally, 350 degrees. on the surface of the element. To increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel element, is pumped into the tube helium, the pressure in operation is up to 80 bar to 100. In operating pressure can be more enhanced in consequence of the accumulation of gaseous decomposition products. Solid products of nuclear reactions (heavy uranium atom splits into two lighter) apart span the tube of the fuel element so that it is unsuitable for further use, long before the complete combustion of the fuel. Sun Defcalion GT features to its site, the 21-page specification

http://defkalion-energy.com

http://www.defkalion-energy.com/files/HyperionSpecsSheetNovember2011.pdf

Hyperion their developments. The reactor core - a cylinder with a diameter of 4 cm and 10 cm long, with a volume of about 125 cubic centimeters. Loose nickel powder in a hydrogen atmosphere at elevated pressure. With high throughput, and the thermal conductivity, hydrogen can successfully the heat to the inner surface of the structure transmitted without areas of local overheating.

The shape of the energy excretion. The decay of uranium-235 nucleus into two unequal parts occurs in the seizure of the nucleus of a neutron. The method is probabilistic in nature. In the fission products are up to 300 other unstable isotopes of different substances, from Z = 30 (zinc) to Z = 64 (gadolinium) is to excite the cascade of further nuclear reactions take the tails of these decays may years. Hundreds of types of nuclear reactions are accompanied by all kinds of radiation with very different energies. In the RPC, the processes are more monosyllabic - produced only two or three stable isotopes, energy is in the form of soft X-rays (less than 150 keV) are released and transferred directly to the nickel lattice.

Managing the process. Uranium 235, one of the few elements that can sustain a chain reaction of nuclear fission. Fuel can only work in an environment of a nuclear reactor. He needs a force field of thermal neutrons, produced jointly by all the modules, regulator and balance rods and other parts of the reactor design. Uranium-235 responds to the need on the threshold level of criticality for 10 ^ -3 seconds (time constant) and for the stable operation of the reactor that all coefficient of reactivity were negative. For RPC specific heat is determined by the concentration of hydrogen protons in the nickel lattice. Time constant of the process is determined by the rate of diffusion of hydrogen in the solid phase, ie, not milliseconds, both for the fuel, but minutes and tens of minutes. From here, manageability, and reliability of the device by Rossi.

The scalability and applicability. A fuel assembly is designed to work in the construction of a nuclear reactor, an isolated operation of this device is not in question. For RPC is present tube design is not the limit seems possible film structures and a massive volume with channels for the cooling liquid. Accordingly, and the wide field of applications - from cell phones to large turbines.

Ecology. Used nuclear fuel, due to the residual long-lived radioactive isotopes decay processes, must be isolated for many months in the pool, and suspend and during the subsequent dry storage of active ventilation. It is cheaper to bury this stuff in the rocks of the alluvial fan in the Arctic Ocean at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. RPC at the minimum protection does not radiate, does not accumulate unstable isotopes are fully recycled and regenerated in a simple chemical process.

Place in the middle of LENR processes.

There are some spectacular effects, such phenomena Schoulders, Vachaeva, Adamenko, Ushirenko which accompany the transmutation of elements, intense energy release and the involvement of charge-cluster phenomena. However, unexpectedly moved forward, the process of nuclear interaction on the resonance frequency of the hydrogen protons in the crystal lattice of nickel.
Yes, based on the effect of Fleischmann-Pons' an installation by Andrea Rossi proved to be more logical techno to get the heat on an industrial scale. But, of course, that after removing the tacit LENR-taboo around the world unfolds and opens itself to finance a broad front of work. And then developments KEN 'SHOULDERS', its charge-clusters, researchers will lead to the possibility of direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity. (Here) on his Vachaev "Energonive" probably many kilowatts of electricity gets turned off successfully, and radionuclides. (here) to the promise of Adamenko developments in his laboratory (proton 21) to obtain the industrial extra heavy stable elements. (here) In general, any transmutation of matter transforming nuclei of one element into another, with different composition of the nucleon, and appear at the same deficiency or excess charges, can, of course, is to be converted into an electric current, you only need a to find suitable way.

Only four metals in nature - iron, nickel, palladium and platinum have the ability to dissociation of adsorbed hydrogen into protons and electrons following proton penetration into the crystal lattice. The effect of Fleischmann-Pons' and open to the palladium and implemented on an industrial scale on nickel are not excluded from consideration as a promising source of boundless energy and also iron.

The specific implementation of the system.

The first trades, the inventor A. Rossi can be presented at the shows instead of the existing laboratory models are estimated, - installation of experimental physicists are always structurally redundant, depending on short-term opportunities and local artists. Nevertheless, they held a demonstration to investors to convince them to invest heavily in design, engineering products. (In particular, Decalion Green Technologies released a series of devices, "Hyperion" hier. () only significance to the assembly are "megawatt, he" returned from the small blocks - having Rossi, not enough time, instinctively clings to the found earlier decision.

Once falling into the hands of professionals in the technology, the idea of guarding the missing components, such as how regenerator of hydrogen, instead of the difficult and dangerous to the operation of the hydrogen balloon. Similarly, will be assessed, such illogical practice, how much of the heat that is used for formatting the preparation transferred directly to the consumer. Next, more efficient units will not be recruited from smaller structural units. And of course the first thing that user to the RPC system, a device for generating electricity.

 As an unknown still quite efficient method for the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electrical energy, and Rossi generator is a heat source, power obtained with a more or less acceptable efficiency is possible only via an intermediate transfer of heat energy into mechanical energy. Such a transformation takes place during the expansion of the hot gas (pressure medium) in a particular structure that the ability to change its internal volume must, for example in a cylinder or a turbine. As a working fluid (working mass) can emerge:

1.    First The same hydrogen that participates in the LENR process of the generator Rossi.

2.    Second Air or another gas, heated by contact with hot designs RPC.

3.    Third The liquid is vaporized and superheated in the heat exchanger, which is in thermal contact with the construction of the reactor (of water vapor other liquids).

 

fig. 4.

 In accordance with the principle of Carnot efficiency of this transformation is larger the higher the temperature difference between the working fluid at the beginning and end of the process. On the first point, this difference is the greatest, example of this principle are shown using the Stirling engine in Figure 3.

The second point is illustrated in Figure 4. The principle of Staustrahldüse and the ramjet could be fully extended to the heat source Rossi. The air is warmed up along the heated surface, expands, pressure and axial velocity component increases. As it happens, the plan says the right. During the heating of the gas linear velocities of the molecules is proportional to grow in all directions. (Vector diagrams a, b, c) molecules, which move to the left, meet in the cooler layers of gas, stuck in them. They give their energy to the heating of these portions of the gas. Compensate in this case the vertical offset vectors, and preferably the right direction.

The simplest variant of obtaining a "working mass" corresponds to the third point in the list, superheated steam can be used in a turbine and reciprocating steam engines and Stirling engines. Worn in a mechanical device is necessary to condense vapor in a special heat exchanger.

 

fig. 5.

And this is the main disadvantage inherent in the method using a two-phase refrigerant. In the mechanical work into electrical energy, and therefore only the thermal energy will be transferred, stored in the superheated steam, but provide a significant heat of vaporization must be completely in the refrigerator. In the case of water, its temperature is at the outlet of the condenser cooling circuit is not more than 50 - to provide 30 degree - 60 degree, and the input capacitor must not hot water 20th This relationship makes little interest to utilize waste heat for heating purposes, and provided nearly impossible for air conditioning. This can be by the fluids to help with higher boiling points, but it decreases the efficiency of power generation. 

 If RPC is used without a power generator, only a heat source, then it would be nice if the device does not provide start-up, or at least operating system power supply. Such possibilities are, for example, is currently in bismuth - produced telluric thermoelectric module (HZ-20 Thermoelectric Module http://www.hi-z.com/hz20.php), with dimensions of 75 * 75 * 5 mm in temperature difference of 200 degrees produces 20 watts of electricity with an efficiency of 4.5%.

 Heating and air conditioning.

A. Parshev in his essay "Why Russia is not America" is wrong, "that our country is not competitive due to the harsh climate in its territory who spent too many resources on capital construction and heat for heating buildings. Much more people around the world suffer from the heat, - the need for greater cold, cold production expensive - the need for refrigeration is wider, cold production is more expensive would, even in our northern border of the 3-4 months of the year does not hurt to air. -conditioners operate, however, food refrigerator in Russian families "eats" a third to half of the current. Three billion of "Southerners" could be very substantial increase in energy consumption, they would have to "human" in terms of temperature and humidity in the home and in the workplace.

Realized with current in sufficient quantities, no problems with heating, air conditioning, it is also easy for a 1000 kW cooling capacity with modern vapor-compression machines (cooling coefficient I = 3,0) have to spend about 300 kW power. The cold therebetween can be obtained with a heat source - it is widely used by absorption chillers. They have not so large cooling rate (I = 1.35), and the cold water temperature at the output of 2 to 5 degrees. C, but they are environmentally friendly, no noise, reliable and consume almost no costly power. Individual user weight is calculated on the RPC needs, usually at the same time and heat and cold, and electricity. The relationship between the carrier of energy during the day and can vary depending on the season. To produce the complex heating, cooling and electricity - is brought into modern terms trigeneration (trigeneration) is engaged. 

The main innovation in the field of energy of the last decade has been the practice of recognizing the rights of small businesses and even occur to some people in the market for power generation. Here the priority is quite heard of Germany. Technically it is possible to leave with the advent of network interface devices, the power system network downstream, with internal power supply subject. Such a device is relatively inexpensive because of its mass production, consideration of energy allows the network, as well as the impact energy to the network when you turn on the internal generation capacity. At the same time not only commercial, dissolved, but all the technical issues: coordination with the external frequency, phase, amplitude, and higher harmonics. This is achieved by the so-called direct current use

Figure 6 shows a possible use of each heat generator Rossi in the concept of three generations and mutual (open) connection to the grid. The thermal generator produces superheated steam at a temperature of 200 to 300 degrees, which is distributed in a certain ratio between the generator of electricity and cooler. With some of the energy in the production of electricity and the production of cold, the heat transfer is still enough energy to be used for space heating and hot water are. Managing the device controller to optimize the process to the level of energy RPC and redistribution of the primary coolant between the radiator and generator according to the current needs of the user and the existing electricity tariffs in the energy system. Thus, heat and cold, used according to the necessity and power generation, in fact, it is possible to obtain the final performance of the system en bloc to one hundred percent.

fig. 6.

 The main advantage of the new technology is the production of energy on-site consumption - no calorie is not in vain, will not spread into the surrounding space. Forced past such thing as "waste heat", "inadequate heat," which are now power plants and nuclear power dissipated in a cooling tower or disperse into natural pools, because the heat can not be sold to the consumer. Sun Balakovo nuclear power plant has six units of 950 megawatts and produces 3000 x 6 = 18 000 megawatts of heat, many of which are released into the pond. The area of ??this never frozen, man-made sea is 24 square kilometers. (Look Vikipedija)

 There are other applications, RPC, for example, the reversibility of Stirling and the inclusion in the scheme of mass storage (1 to 2 cubic meters) for the cold fluid from the system, a separate cooling unit are excluded. In the meantime, everyone will be difficult to implement these systems, while the Stirling engines are expensive and not assimilated a large scale, small turbines have to learn to make from scratch on new, even with back-and-piston steam engines. Meanwhile, at a favorable development of the situation Rossi builds until the end of the year, a plant with 1 million units, Deucalion licensed companies - service providers to acquire the full power for 0.3 million * N units per year.

 ... 04/11/12
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 continued                here

 

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