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Rossi's power-cell. (RPC ТГР)
By early 2012, the structure of the RPC gradually took their full functional form, as a kind of unit, suitable for a wide application in many sectors of the economy. Rossi proved the reality of LENR energy on an industrial scale to produce, and now it is time for the intellectual, operational and financial resources of the Society for the widespread use of this opportunity to connect. Suddenly a broad front of the work appeared in four areas: academic science, experimental physics, engineering applications, speculative commercial direction.Device.
Such conditions are hydrides of some metals just like Magnesium hydride. One cubic centimeter of this powder contains hydrogen by weight and a half times more than its contained the same amount of liquid hydrogen. However hydride of iron-titanium alloy such as dissociated at temperatures from 320 to 370 K with a low heat of formation. The tube (8) connects the regenerator of hydrogen with a closed reactor of thermal insulation (9). The selection of heat takes place through the heat exchanger (10) from where there is the coolant in the form of water or superheated steam. Device control and management receives information from the temperature and pressure sensors. It maintains the heat of the reactor at the desired level by controlling the temperature of the regenerator of hydrogen.
The principle of operation.
The scientists in the chemical catalysis, and employs a lot of detail
with the nickel-hydrogen system. They are well known, with processes at the
interface between solid and gaseous phases, such as:
The question is why the researchers did not notice the anomalous heat generation in their working patterns? Maybe because they deal with two-dimensional structures, more sophisticated, but the surfaces. And no one before and Rossi Piantelli not kalorimetriert the nickel nanopowders under considerable pressure at a high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. Here is just nanopowders, apparently, is the key. The large surface section between the two phases has led to a transition from quantity to quality - the start of the heat released commercially. It turned out that the hydrogen that diffuses through the nickel grid of dismissal of an electron, has a non-zero probability to penetrate the core of an atom of nickel. In implementing this probability is LENR - reaction, accompanied by a large release of energy. Modern science has to deny recently accompanied the possibility of LENR processes by transmutation of energy release, and not able to explain clearly the physical nature of the phenomenon. (Here), but this fact should not prevent the introduction a new efficient heat source, and the ambiguity of the combustion process does not interfere with people thousands of years, the use of pyres.
Thus, the more hydrogen atoms is in the lattice of nickel, realizes the more the probability of absorption of the proton nucleus of nickel. The concentration of hydrogen protons in the crystal lattice of the larger, the higher the temperature in the reactor, the higher the hydrogen pressure, and the more developed the interface between the gas and the metal crystals. The easiest way to manage the reactor change, the gas pressure. What has been implemented by introducing in the device node of the regenerator of hydrogen. It should be emphasized that the emergency situation that can not be to "accelerate" the process of heat in the reactor warden occur: during the heating of the specimen sintering or melting will occur the nanopowder, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of protons in the crystals .
Thus, the specific nature of the heat source at the generator Rossi a slow start after the break, a relatively shallow level of power control and the slow change of the current value of the thermal power released. However, these drawbacks are insignificant in comparison with such dignity, such as an extremely low cost of energy produced.
Place of RPC on energy sources.
Generator Rossi, of course, can be used for space heating as a local heat source, but much better to treat it as a tool for collaborative production of electricity and heat (the principle of Cogeneration). In this respect interesting to compare it to other heat sources that are used to generate electricity. Currently, the most important technical tool for converting thermal energy into electricity by a turbine-generator efficiency and the turbine generator and other steam engine depends mainly on the parameters of the steam at the inlet of the turbine.
Generally in the energy sector, despite the fact that cleaner burning fuel in a closed space in the position of the heating boiler design to very high temperatures, can not penetrate far into the supercritical range of the phase diagram of water. About Critical fluid acquires new properties, in particular, it is chemically aggressive. For example, in Iceland, to extract the geothermal energy in the volcanic area, drilled deep into more than two miles. The resulting fluid having a temperature of 1100 degrees C corroded pipes and heat exchanger made of stainless steel. In the column of Table 6.5 of the overall efficiency of RPC was set to 100%. This is due to the fact that the local device on the principle of combined heat and power (CHP - Cogeneration), that operates heat, which is not used to generate electricity, used for heating or air conditioning.
With all favorable settings of the thermal generator Rossi laurels of victory between the energy sources is still part of the solar and wind energy - it does not cause thermal pollution.
The type of heat-elimination device
Apart from the auxiliary details, you can look at the heat source Rossi as fuel element. It is characterized by a well-defined density of volumetric power output (W / cm ³), geometric shape, which determines the transport of heat from the working volume and surface area through which heat causes in the refrigerator. The closest analogue to the physical device is considered a fuel rod that works on all types of nuclear reactors. It is useful to compare these two devices.
The volumetric energy release. Fuel rod in the form of a long tube with a diameter 1.9 mm is -13.5 bar in the flow of the cooling water with the parameters of 65, disposed 280 degrees C (for RBMK-1000). Data for its energy performance are well known: volume up to 450 W / cm, linear 17 kW per meter of pipe and heat flux 0.6 MW per square meter of surface heat transfer. While no detailed data for RPC, from the statement that the internal medium of the unit (molten salt) can can exceed 650 degrees C (here), we conclude that the energy level of RPC same magnitude as the fuel rod has. "... Has successfully completed its PDGT scientific, technological and engineering Necessary steps to sustain such a reaction with results Exceeding a COP of 20 and with temperatures exceed 650 degrees Celsius capable to ..."
The energy source. The fuel element of the reactor, the forced splitting of uranium 235 takes place in the force field of thermal neutrons. The process has the statistical and cascade-condition, the average energy of 202.5 MeV for the decay of a nucleus. The RPC is the cold fusion reaction of hydrogen with one proton nucleus of an atom of nickel (LENR process) assume will be achieved by, releasing energy that accompanies the nuclear scale. One mole of nickel makes about 23 000 kWh of thermal energy.
The temperature distribution in the structure. Fuel element operates in a very tight operation. The tablets of uranium dioxide have low thermal conductivity, there is a significant temperature gradient in the radial direction: 1600 - 1900 °. C on the axis of the tube, on the surface of the tablet, respectively, 470 -900 degrees, further, difference between the pills and the cladding, the falling on the pan 20 degrees, and finally, 350 degrees. on the surface of the element. To increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel element, is pumped into the tube helium, the pressure in operation is up to 80 bar to 100. In operating pressure can be more enhanced in consequence of the accumulation of gaseous decomposition products. Solid products of nuclear reactions (heavy uranium atom splits into two lighter) apart span the tube of the fuel element so that it is unsuitable for further use, long before the complete combustion of the fuel. Sun Defcalion GT features to its site, the 21-page specificationhttp://www.defkalion-energy.com/files/HyperionSpecsSheetNovember2011.pdf
Hyperion their developments. The reactor core - a cylinder with a diameter of 4 cm and 10 cm long, with a volume of about 125 cubic centimeters. Loose nickel powder in a hydrogen atmosphere at elevated pressure. With high throughput, and the thermal conductivity, hydrogen can successfully the heat to the inner surface of the structure transmitted without areas of local overheating.
The shape of the energy excretion. The decay of uranium-235 nucleus into two unequal parts occurs in the seizure of the nucleus of a neutron. The method is probabilistic in nature. In the fission products are up to 300 other unstable isotopes of different substances, from Z = 30 (zinc) to Z = 64 (gadolinium) is to excite the cascade of further nuclear reactions take the tails of these decays may years. Hundreds of types of nuclear reactions are accompanied by all kinds of radiation with very different energies. In the RPC, the processes are more monosyllabic - produced only two or three stable isotopes, energy is in the form of soft X-rays (less than 150 keV) are released and transferred directly to the nickel lattice.
Managing the process. Uranium 235, one of the few elements that can sustain a chain reaction of nuclear fission. Fuel can only work in an environment of a nuclear reactor. He needs a force field of thermal neutrons, produced jointly by all the modules, regulator and balance rods and other parts of the reactor design. Uranium-235 responds to the need on the threshold level of criticality for 10 ^ -3 seconds (time constant) and for the stable operation of the reactor that all coefficient of reactivity were negative. For RPC specific heat is determined by the concentration of hydrogen protons in the nickel lattice. Time constant of the process is determined by the rate of diffusion of hydrogen in the solid phase, ie, not milliseconds, both for the fuel, but minutes and tens of minutes. From here, manageability, and reliability of the device by Rossi.
The scalability and applicability. A fuel assembly is designed to work in the construction of a nuclear reactor, an isolated operation of this device is not in question. For RPC is present tube design is not the limit seems possible film structures and a massive volume with channels for the cooling liquid. Accordingly, and the wide field of applications - from cell phones to large turbines.
Ecology. Used nuclear fuel, due to the residual long-lived radioactive isotopes decay processes, must be isolated for many months in the pool, and suspend and during the subsequent dry storage of active ventilation. It is cheaper to bury this stuff in the rocks of the alluvial fan in the Arctic Ocean at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. RPC at the minimum protection does not radiate, does not accumulate unstable isotopes are fully recycled and regenerated in a simple chemical process.
Place in the middle of LENR processes.
There are some
spectacular effects, such phenomena Schoulders, Vachaeva, Adamenko, Ushirenko
which accompany the transmutation of elements, intense energy release and the
involvement of charge-cluster phenomena. However, unexpectedly moved forward,
the process of nuclear interaction on the resonance frequency of the hydrogen
protons in the crystal lattice of nickel.
Only four metals in nature - iron, nickel, palladium and platinum have the ability to dissociation of adsorbed hydrogen into protons and electrons following proton penetration into the crystal lattice. The effect of Fleischmann-Pons' and open to the palladium and implemented on an industrial scale on nickel are not excluded from consideration as a promising source of boundless energy and also iron.
The specific implementation of the system.
The first trades, the inventor A. Rossi can be presented at the shows instead of the existing laboratory models are estimated, - installation of experimental physicists are always structurally redundant, depending on short-term opportunities and local artists. Nevertheless, they held a demonstration to investors to convince them to invest heavily in design, engineering products. (In particular, Decalion Green Technologies released a series of devices, "Hyperion" hier. () only significance to the assembly are "megawatt, he" returned from the small blocks - having Rossi, not enough time, instinctively clings to the found earlier decision.
Once falling into the hands of professionals in the technology, the idea of guarding the missing components, such as how regenerator of hydrogen, instead of the difficult and dangerous to the operation of the hydrogen balloon. Similarly, will be assessed, such illogical practice, how much of the heat that is used for formatting the preparation transferred directly to the consumer. Next, more efficient units will not be recruited from smaller structural units. And of course the first thing that user to the RPC system, a device for generating electricity.
And this is the main disadvantage inherent in the method using a two-phase refrigerant. In the mechanical work into electrical energy, and therefore only the thermal energy will be transferred, stored in the superheated steam, but provide a significant heat of vaporization must be completely in the refrigerator. In the case of water, its temperature is at the outlet of the condenser cooling circuit is not more than 50 - to provide 30 degree - 60 degree, and the input capacitor must not hot water 20th This relationship makes little interest to utilize waste heat for heating purposes, and provided nearly impossible for air conditioning. This can be by the fluids to help with higher boiling points, but it decreases the efficiency of power generation.
If RPC is used without a power generator, only a heat source, then it would be nice if the device does not provide start-up, or at least operating system power supply. Such possibilities are, for example, is currently in bismuth - produced telluric thermoelectric module (HZ-20 Thermoelectric Module http://www.hi-z.com/hz20.php), with dimensions of 75 * 75 * 5 mm in temperature difference of 200 degrees produces 20 watts of electricity with an efficiency of 4.5%.
Heating and air conditioning.
A. Parshev in his essay "Why Russia is not America" is wrong, "that our country is not competitive due to the harsh climate in its territory who spent too many resources on capital construction and heat for heating buildings. Much more people around the world suffer from the heat, - the need for greater cold, cold production expensive - the need for refrigeration is wider, cold production is more expensive would, even in our northern border of the 3-4 months of the year does not hurt to air. -conditioners operate, however, food refrigerator in Russian families "eats" a third to half of the current. Three billion of "Southerners" could be very substantial increase in energy consumption, they would have to "human" in terms of temperature and humidity in the home and in the workplace.
Realized with current in sufficient quantities, no problems with heating, air conditioning, it is also easy for a 1000 kW cooling capacity with modern vapor-compression machines (cooling coefficient I = 3,0) have to spend about 300 kW power. The cold therebetween can be obtained with a heat source - it is widely used by absorption chillers. They have not so large cooling rate (I = 1.35), and the cold water temperature at the output of 2 to 5 degrees. C, but they are environmentally friendly, no noise, reliable and consume almost no costly power. Individual user weight is calculated on the RPC needs, usually at the same time and heat and cold, and electricity. The relationship between the carrier of energy during the day and can vary depending on the season. To produce the complex heating, cooling and electricity - is brought into modern terms trigeneration (trigeneration) is engaged.
The main advantage of the new technology is the production of energy on-site consumption - no calorie is not in vain, will not spread into the surrounding space. Forced past such thing as "waste heat", "inadequate heat," which are now power plants and nuclear power dissipated in a cooling tower or disperse into natural pools, because the heat can not be sold to the consumer. Sun Balakovo nuclear power plant has six units of 950 megawatts and produces 3000 x 6 = 18 000 megawatts of heat, many of which are released into the pond. The area of ??this never frozen, man-made sea is 24 square kilometers. (Look Vikipedija)
There are other applications, RPC, for example, the reversibility of Stirling and the inclusion in the scheme of mass storage (1 to 2 cubic meters) for the cold fluid from the system, a separate cooling unit are excluded. In the meantime, everyone will be difficult to implement these systems, while the Stirling engines are expensive and not assimilated a large scale, small turbines have to learn to make from scratch on new, even with back-and-piston steam engines. Meanwhile, at a favorable development of the situation Rossi builds until the end of the year, a plant with 1 million units, Deucalion licensed companies - service providers to acquire the full power for 0.3 million * N units per year.